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Special Education Needs
Types of Special Need
Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Behaviourally Challenged
Brittle Bones
Cerebral Palsy
Down's Syndrome
Emotional Behavioural Difficulties
hearing Impaired
MLD (Moderate Learning Difficulties)
Muscular Dystrophy
Specific Literacy Difficulty (Dyslexia)
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Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus
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 Special Education Needs

Types of Special Need -



  • Make sure work level is appropriate as children with Down's get frustrated more easily if work is too hard; they can also get upset if work is too different from others in the class as they dislike being singled out.

  • Make sure the child knows and understands the rules; he/she should be treated no different from peers if deliberately disobeying. - all staff should be aware of need for consistency.

  • Encourage good behaviour with visual reinforcement and reward.

  • Don't confront bad behaviour; try to distract or ignore child; try 'time-out'

  • In post-primary school a home-school book is useful to ensure parents and teachers are working together.

  • Use colour coding, diagrams etc. to help pupil get to know timetable.

  • Encourage pupil to have lists of equipment for different days. - classroom assistant might help with this.

  • Make the child aware when he/she has to listen, e.g. point to your ears.

  • Allow lots of opportunities for practice when learning a new skill and try to use it in many different settings.


  • Use a look, say method when teaching reading.  Initially teach words which can have a visual meaning.

e.g. use flash cards with family photographs and names underneath, then use a second set with just names.  Then introduce high frequency words to make above into sentences. "Mummy and Daddy with Alison."

  • Build up sentences from every day conversation.  Make reading books personal to child.

  • Make sure any published reading books used are within the level of the child's understanding.

  • When teaching children with Down's reduce distractions and keep activities short


  • Teach letters using Letterland so that child can picture visually what the letter looks like.

  • Use picture word banks and story boards to help jog memory visually.

Develop memory skills by.

  • Playing games which encourage children to follow instructions without visual clues.  Play Kim's game, Pairs etc.

  • Make use of pictures and diagrams where possible when assessing comprehension.

Further Information


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