SCOTENS - Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South - Logo   Image of SEN Children - Logo
Area Index
Home Page
Special Education Needs
Types of Special Need
Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Behaviourally Challenged
Brittle Bones
Cerebral Palsy
Down's Syndrome
Emotional Behavioural Difficulties
hearing Impaired
MLD (Moderate Learning Difficulties)
Muscular Dystrophy
Specific Literacy Difficulty (Dyslexia)
Severe or Complex
Speech & Language
Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus
Tourette's Syndrome
Visually Impaired
Medical Conditions
People and Roles
ICT & Special Needs
Case Studies
Teaching Strategies
Miscellaneous Needs
Resources & help
Student Activities

 Special Education Needs

Types of Special Need -

Specific Literacy Difficulties (Dyslexia)

  • Three times as many males as females affected

  • Three types of dyslexia; motor, visual and auditory.

    Dyslexia is usually diagnosed by a psychologist based on data gathered by teachers and parents. In order to decide whether a child has SLD/dyslexia a picture of the whole child needs to be developed. It is likely that there will be marked deficits in their achievements despite being of average or above ability.

    SLD causes significant problems with reading writing and spelling, and sometime maths.  Short-term memory, concentration, personal organization and sequencing can also be affected.  In other respects many people with SLD are very creative.
  • Things to look out for:  problems with phonics, poor short term memory and problems with distinguishing right and left.  The child might seem bright in some ways but with a 'block' in others.  The child may have difficulty with carrying out a sequence of three or more instructions.  He/she may write letters and numbers the wrong way round, e.g. 17 for 71, 9 for 6, b for d etc.  He/she may write a word in several ways without recognizing the correct version.  There can be confusion with left and right and he/she may have a poor sense of rhythm.  Learning about time and tense can also cause problems.

     In older children he/she may make unexpected errors reading aloud, have difficulty copying and taking notes and spelling.  He/she may have problems planning and writing essays and with mental arithmetic.  It might take him/her a very long time to read a book with understanding.  A lack of self-esteem is often apparent.

    Dyslexia can be diagnosed at any stage in a pupil's life. For many able pupils they are able to use coping strategies for years until the level or amount of work increases to such a state that they can no longer cope. For pupils with dual exceptionalities, e.g. giftedness and dyslexia this is most common.

    Case Studies

    Teaching Strategies

    People who can help: SENCO/Resource Teacher



    Further Information

    Dyslexia Checklist (pdf)Information taken from Dyslexia - Successful Inclusion in the Secondary
    School edited by Lindsay Peer and Gavin Reid, 2001 London, David Fulton.
    Dyslexia and Omega 3 Supplements

    Neuro-Developmental Factors in Dyslexia  
    s Identifying Dyslexia (In Touch June 2003)

    Articles of Interest

    Visual-Spatial Learning

    The Power of Visual Thinking - downloadable article.

    Acknowledgements & Copyright